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How To: Force a Patina on Knives

How To: Force a Vinegar Patina on Knife Blades

Forcing a patina on a knife blade may sound like a silly idea at first. After all, knifemakers spend countless hours polishing and finishing the knives so that they look their absolute best. However, patinas can serve other purposes, like protecting the knife blade from oxidation and giving it a unique appearance.

Blades that are made from semi-stainless or especially high-carbon steels are considered “organic” and reactive, and will naturally turn grey or sometimes hues of blues, purple and gold with use (this colouration is called the patina, and the pattern will be unique to your knife). The patina will become a protective layer (Magnetite) for the blade and will help prevent rust (Hematite). If you know in your heart, that caring for a carbon blade is more work than you are prepared to commit to, perhaps it’s best to stick with stainless steel (which is better carbon or stainless steel?).

Chef knife with mustard patina
Chef knife with a forced patina.

Until the patina is fully developed, the steel will cause minor discolouration on some vegetables and acidic foods, like onions or pineapple. Wipe the blade routinely while you cut acidic foods, particularly until the patina is fully formed. The patina will narrate your food story to everyone who sees the blade. A knife used primarily on meat has a thin almost translucent hue while a vegetable knife will develop bold patches and stripes.

You don’t need to “force” a patina as it will naturally occur over time, but should you wish to speed up the process or create patterns, here is how you can do it.

A vinegar or instant coffee (fresh coffee has too much oil) forced patina is the preferred choice when a more even finish is desired. For more creative patterns, mustard patinas can give more options.

Supplies you’ll need:

  • Carbon Steel / Semi-Stainless steel knife blade (Chromium content <13%)
  • Acetone, denatured alcohol or Windex
  • White spirit vinegar (any type)
  • Paper kitchen towel
  • Spray bottle
  • Container the length of your knife/blade


As with etching damascus, it is essential to thoroughly clean your blade so that the vinegar makes contact with the whole surface. If there is already a patina on the blade you can use a baking soda/ water paste to remove it.

  1. With the paper kitchen towel, rub the vinegar evenly across the blade on each side. Let the vinegar sit for a few minutes (about 5-10 minutes) then rinse off the vinegar and hand-dry thoroughly. Reapply as many times as needed to generate an even-ish colour.
  2. I soaked a kitchen paper in vinegar first and then wrapped the blade with it. This creates an interesting mottled pattern based on the texture of the paper on the blade.
  3. If you have a large enough container, you can fill the container with vinegar and submerge the blade (being careful not to wet the handle). You’ll see small bubbles on the blade and it begins to darken. This is also known as vinegar etching.
  4. Dip the blade, point down into your container filled with vinegar and remove. Allow the vinegar to run down and off the blade. This can create some interesting effects/colours on carbon steels especially.
  5. Fill a spray bottle with vinegar and spray lightly well above the blade so that the droplets rain down / settle on the flat of the blade.

Have fun experimenting with different techniques and multiple layers, until you achieve your desired look.

Things to note:

  • Warming the vinegar will make the patina form faster.
  • Yellow mustard, tomato sauce, and or mayonnaise can also be used as it is easier to “paint” patterns.
  • Do not let the vinegar dry on the knife as it can form rust spots. Rinse it off after a few minutes and dry the knife.
  • If your blade already has a patina in some areas, those areas will continue to darken further.